Summary: The primary purpose of diagnostic imaging is to enable clinicians to make correct decisions about a patient's diagnosis and severity of its condition and, thereby, to contribute to effective and efficient treatment. Advanced imaging modalities are inherently better detectors of morphological lesions than radiography; hence, they offer the possibility of more accurate diagnosis and staging, with correspondingly better patient outcomes. However, there is a lack of evidence that better outcomes are being realised for veterinary patients. Furthermore, increased use of advanced imaging carries the possibility of increased misuse, primarily through unnecessary studies that contribute little to patient management other than increased costs. Scope: This article is intended to be relevant to all veterinary species. Advanced imaging of cats is not sufficiently developed as a specific discipline that a balanced review could be based purely on feline examples or references.