We examined associations of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with renal function loss (RFL) and its structural determinants in American Indians with type 2 diabetes. Data were from a 6-year clinical trial that assessed renoprotective efficacy of losartan. Participants remained under observation after the trial concluded. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured annually. Kidney biopsies were performed at the end of the trial. Five AGEs were measured in serum collected at enrollment and at kidney biopsy. RFL was defined as ‡40% decline of measured GFR from baseline. Of 168 participants (mean baseline age 41 years, HbA1c 9.2%, GFR 164 mL/min, and albumin-To-creatinine ratio 31 mg/g), 104 reached the RFL end point during median follow-up of 8.0 years. After multivariable adjustment, each doubling of carboxyethyl lysine (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.08-2.37]) ormethylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (HR 1.30 [95% CI 1.02-1.65]) concentration was associated with RFL. Carboxyethyl lysine, carboxymethyl lysine, and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone correlated positively with cortical interstitial fractional volume (partial r = 0.23, P = 0.03; partial r = 0.25, P = 0.02; and partial r = 0.31, P = 0.003, respectively). Glyoxyl hydroimidazolone and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone correlated negatively with total filtration surface per glomerulus (partial r = 20.26, P = 0.01; and partial r = 20.21, P = 0.046, respectively). AGEs improve prediction of RFL and its major structural correlates.