Adult growth hormone deficiency: clinical advances and approaches to improve adherence

Kevin C.J. Yuen, Sofia Llahana, Bradley S. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Introduction: There have been significant clinical advances in the understanding of the diagnosis and benefits of long-term recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement in adults with GH deficiency (GHD) since its approval in 1996 by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Areas covered: We searched PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo databases between January 2000 and June 2019 for published studies evaluating adults with GHD. We reviewed the data of the oral macimorelin test compared to the GHRH plus arginine and the insulin tolerance tests that led to its approval by the United States FDA and European Medicines Agency for adult diagnostic testing. We summarize the clinical advances of long-term benefits of rhGH therapy and the potential effects of GH receptor polymorphisms on individual treatment responsiveness. We identify that non-adherence and discontinuation rates are high and recommend strategies to support patients to improve adherence. We also provide an overview of several long-acting GH (LAGH) preparations currently under development and their potential role in improving treatment adherence. Expert opinion: This article summarizes recent clinical advances in rhGH replacement therapy, the biological and molecular aspects that may influence rhGH action, and offers practical strategies to enhance adherence in adults with GHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-436
Number of pages18
JournalExpert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Growth hormone
  • adherence
  • adult growth hormone deficiency
  • advances
  • long-acting growth hormone


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