The adsorption and reaction properties of H-BEA, SnBEA, ZrBEA and siliceous BEA were examined to understand the reaction of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) with ethylene to form p-xylene. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of diethyl ether, DMF, 2,5-hexanedione and p-xylene on each of the zeolites demonstrated that the Brønsted sites in H-BEA are more reactive than the Lewis sites in SnBEA and ZrBEA and tend to promote the oligomerization of DMF and 2,5-hexanedione, even at 295 K; however, the adsorbed 2,5-hexanedione is converted to DMF at both Lewis- and Brønsted-acid sites. H-BEA, SnBEA and ZrBEA all catalyzed the reaction to p-xylene with high selectivity in a continuous-flow reactor, with all three catalysts showing rates that were first order in both DMF and ethylene. H-BEA was found to deactivate rapidly due to coking, while ZrBEA and SnBEA were both stable. The implications of these results for practical applications are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under award number DE-SC0001004.
© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.