A structural equation model incorporating substance abuse problem severity, psychosocial risk and protection, and treatment variables examined adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome pathways across 6- and 12-month follow-up points. Findings on resiliency factors and an empirical method adapted from previous research were used to select and assign 10 psychosocial factors to either a multiple protective factor index or a risk factor index. Gender, substance abuse problem severity, treatment modality, treatment length, and aftercare participation were also examined as outcome predictors. The findings suggest that treatment intensity decisions may be better informed by pretreatment psychosocial risk level rather than by substance abuse problem severity. The present study also suggests that drug-abusing adolescents who receive sufficiently long treatment, participate in aftercare, and possess at least 1 individual or interpersonal prospective factor during their recovery process have the best chance to maintain gains made during treatment.