To avoid inflated type I error and reduced power in genetic association studies, it is necessary to adjust properly for population stratification and known/unknown subject relatedness. It would be interesting to compare the performance of a principal component-based approach with a linear mixed model. Furthermore, with the availability of genome-wide sequencing data, the question of whether it is preferable to use common variants or rare variants for such an adjustment remains largely unknown. In this paper, we use the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data to empirically investigate these issues. We consider both a quantitative trait and a binary trait.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the GAW18 workshop for offering us such a complete data set to practice our methods. YZ and WP were supported by National Institutes of Health grants R21DK089351, R01HL65462, R01HL105397, and R01GM081535. The GAW18 whole genome sequence data were provided by the T2DGENES Consortium, which is supported by NIH grants U01 DK085524, U01 DK085584, U01 DK085501, U01 DK085526, and U01 DK085545. The other genetic and phenotypic data for GAW18 were provided by the San Antonio Family Heart Study and San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study, which are supported by NIH grants P01 HL045222, R01 DK047482, and R01 DK053889. The Genetic Analysis Workshop is supported by NIH grant R01 GM031575.
© 2014 Zhang and Pan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.