Macrophages within adipose tissue play a key role in mediating inflammatory responses in adipose tissue that are associated with obesity-related metabolic complications. In an effort to identify novel proteins secreted from adipocytes that may negatively regulate macrophage inflammation, we found that peroxiredoxin (PRX)-like 2 activated in M-CSF stimulated monocytes (PAMM), a CXXC-Type PRX-like 2 domaincontaining redox regulatory protein, is a novel secreted protein with potent anti-inflammatory properties. PAMMis secreted from mature human adipocytes but not preadipocytes. Overexpression of PAMM significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation. Incubation of macrophages with adipocyte-conditional medium treated with anti-PAMM antibody significantly enhanced LPS-induced interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression in Raw264.7 cells. In addition, incubation of Raw264.7 cells with purified PAMM protein had a similar antiinflammatory effect. Moreover, forced expression of PAMM in Raw264.7 cells resulted in decreased LPS-induced ERK1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-Terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, suggesting that PAMM exerted the anti-inflammatory function probably by suppressing the mitogen-Activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. Mutations in the CXXC motif of PAMM that suppressed its anti-redox activity were still able to suppress production of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages, suggesting that PAMM's antiinflammatory properties may be independent of its antioxidant properties. Finally, PAMM was highly expressed in both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT) and further increased in obesity status. Our results suggest that adipocyte-derived PAMMmay suppressmacrophage activation by inhibitingMAPK signalling pathway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the School of Medicine, University of Missouri - Kansas [grant number DSF2014]; National Institute of Health [grant number AI103618 to (M.F.)]; and National Natural Foundation of China [(grant numbers 91339113, 81270202 and 81070095 to (H.X.), 81470435, 81170277 to (Z.J.)].
- Peroxiredoxin-like 2 activated in M-CSF-stimulated monocytes (PAMM)
- Secreted protein.