Adherence of health workers to guidelines for screening and management of cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda

Olivie C. Namuju, Proscovia M. Namuwenge, Richard Kwizera, Emmanuel Obuya, Paul Kirumira, Rose Naluyima, Cynthia Ahimbisibwe, Jane Francis Ndyetukira, Hawa Nakato, Robert Kirungi, Jane Gakuru, Samuel Junju, Edwin Nuwagira, Morris Rutakagirwa, Sara Nsibirwa, Vennie Nabitaka, Elizabeth Nalintya, Edward Mpoza, Conrad K. Muzoora, Abdu K. MusubireDavid R. Boulware, David B. Meya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction Health workers’ failure to adhere to guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a significant public health concern. We aimed to assess adherence to the standards of care and management of HIV patients at risk of CM per the MoH guidelines and assess stock management of CM supplies in the period of January to June 2021 at selected public health facilities (HFs) in Uganda. Methods The study employed an observational cross-sectional design to assess the level of adherence of health workers to standards of clinical care and management of HIV positive patients at risk of CM as per the clinical guidelines for Uganda, and stock management of CM supplies in the period of January to June 2021in selected public health facilities. The study team used a survey guide designed by MoH to assess and score the screening, diagnosis and management practices of Health Facilities towards CM. Scoring was categorized as red (< 80%), light green (80%-95%), and dark green (>95%) in the order from worst to best adherence. The data was transcribed into a spread sheet and analysed using STATA–v15. Results The study team visited a total of 15 public health facilities including 5 general hospitals, 9 regional referral hospitals (RRHs) and 1 National Referral hospital (NRH). The mean score for adherence to screening and management of CM for all the combined facilities was 15 (64.7%) classified as red. 10 (66.7%) HFs had not performed a baseline CD4 test for eligible patients within 2 weeks of ART initiation. With regards to treatment, 9 (60%) of the HFs were scored as light green on knowledge of the procedure for reconstituting intravenous Liposomal Amphotericin B. None of the HFs visited had potassium chloride tablets in stock. Conclusion Major MoH guidelines are generally not being adhered to by health workers while managing cryptococcal meningitis. It is vital that government and implementing partners regularly support HFs with training, mentorship, and support supervision on CM management to improve adherence to CM screening and treatment guidelines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0284165
JournalPloS one
Issue number4 April
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Namuju et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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