Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of anticytokines is a powerful tool for modulating the cytokine environment under conditions of respiratory disease. In order to determine the feasibility of cytokine modulation in the context of respiratory disease in swine, nonreplicating E1- and E3-deficient adenovirus constructs expressing a model protein, β-galactosidase, and an anticytokine, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), were evaluated for in vitro expression in porcine PK15 cells, and in vivo following endotracheal instillation into the lungs. β-Galactosidase and IL-1Ra were readily expressed in vitro in swine cells. Endotracheal administration of lacZ-containing adenovirus demonstrated that endothelial and epithelial cells in the alveolar spaces and bronchi of the middle and lower lobes were the principal sites of infection and expression, whereas β-galactosidase staining was not observed in the upper lobe. Endotracheal administration of IL-1Ra recombinant adenovirus resulted in sustained expression of IL-1Ra into the alveolar spaces, where it was recovered in a concentration of 660pg/ml in 500ml of lavage fluid, equivalent to 330ng IL-1Ra, in the lungs 7 days after treatment. Moreover, in vivo instillation of nonreplicating adenovirus did not induce an inflammatory response in the 1-week time frame of the study period. Lung weight as a percent of body weight, serum zinc, serum amyloid A, leukocyte differentials, neutrophil activity, and TNF levels all were the same between untreated pigs and pigs treated with either recombinant adenovirus. The results indicate that the delivery of IL-1Ra to swine lungs via nonreplicating, recombinant adenovirus may be an effective method for in vivo modulation of IL-1 activity and investigation of cytokine involvement in respiratory disease pathogenesis.
- Gene delivery