Adenovirus infection occurs in 10% of pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients; however, no cases have been described in adult liver transplant recipients. A retrospective review of 191 adults who underwent liver transplantation from January 1988 through October 1995 was done to describe the incidence and clinical significance of adenovirus infection in this population. There were 11 (5.8%) patients with 16 cultures positive for adenovirus. Sites of isolation were urine (9), blood (2), liver biopsy (2), colonic biopsy (1), lung biopsy (1), and stool (1). Adenovirus infection was classified as either disease or asymptomatic infection. There were 7 cases of adenovirus disease (2 definite, 1 probable, and 4 possible). Disease was disseminated in 3 patients: All had pneumonia and 2 died. Of the 3 patients with pneumonia, 2 had evidence of multiorgan involvement. Adenovirus disease occurs in adult orthotopic liver transplant recipients and may be associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality.
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Received 7 May 1997; revised 22 September 1997. Presented in part: 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 1996, New Orleans (abstract 1932). Grant support: NIH AI-07329. Reprints or correspondence: David R. Snydman, New England Medical Center, 750 Washington St., Box 238, Boston, MA 02111 (davidsnydman@es. nemc.org).