Adaptive lesion formation using dual mode ultrasound array system

Dalong Liu, Andrew Casper, Alyona Haritonova, Emad S. Ebbini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


We present the results from an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound platform designed to perform real-time monitoring and control of lesion formation. Real-time signal processing of echogenicity changes during lesion formation allows for identification of signature events indicative of tissue damage. The detection of these events triggers the cessation or the reduction of the exposure (intensity and/or time) to prevent overexposure. A dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) is used for forming single- and multiple-focus patterns in a variety of tissues. The DMUA approach allows for inherent registration between the therapeutic and imaging coordinate systems providing instantaneous, spatially-accurate feedback on lesion formation dynamics. The beamformed RF data has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to tissue changes during lesion formation, including in vivo. In particular, the beamformed echo data from the DMUA is very sensitive to cavitation activity in response to HIFU in a variety of modes, e.g. boiling cavitation. This form of feedback is characterized by sudden increase in echogenicity that could occur within milliseconds of the application of HIFU (see for an example). The real-time beamforming and signal processing allowing the adaptive control of lesion formation is enabled by a high performance GPU platform (response time within 10 msec). We present results from a series of experiments in bovine cardiac tissue demonstrating the robustness and increased speed of volumetric lesion formation for a range of clinically-relevant exposures. Gross histology demonstrate clearly that adaptive lesion formation results in tissue damage consistent with the size of the focal spot and the raster scan in 3 dimensions. In contrast, uncontrolled volumetric lesions exhibit significant pre-focal buildup due to excessive exposure from multiple full-exposure HIFU shots. Stopping or reducing the HIFU exposure upon the detection of such an events has been shown to produce precisely controlled lesions with no evidence of overexposure even when fast raster scan of volumetric HIFU lesion is attempted. We also show that the DMUA beamformed echo data is capable of detecting underexposure condition at the target location, e.g. due to the obstruction of the HIFU beam resulting from cavitation activity in the path of the beam. The results clearly demonstrate the advantage of adaptive lesion formation in reducing the treatment time while confining the tissue damage to the target volume.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings from the 14th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, ISTU 2014
EditorsJ. Brian Fowlkes, Vasant A. Salgaonkar
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735414891
StatePublished - Mar 17 2017
Event14th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, ISTU 2014 - Las Vegas, United States
Duration: Apr 2 2014Apr 5 2014

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Other14th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, ISTU 2014
CountryUnited States
CityLas Vegas


  • DMUA
  • HIFU
  • Lesion formation

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