Adaptation of WHOQOL as health-related quality of life instrument to develop a vision-specific instrument

Rakhi Dandona, Lalit Dandona, Catherine A. McCarty, N. Rao Gullapalli

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12 Scopus citations


The WHOQOL instrument was adapted as a health-related QOL instrument for a population-based epidemiologic study of eye diseases in southern India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS). A follow-up question was added to each item in WHOQOL to determine whether the decrease in QOL was due to any health reasons including eye-related reasons. Modifications in WHOQOL and translation in local language were done through the use of the focus groups including health professionals and people not related to health care. The modified instrument has 28 items across 6 domains of the WHOQOL and was translated into the local language, Telugu, using the pragmatic approach. It takes 10-20 minutes to be administered by a trained interviewer. Reliability was within acceptable range. This health-related QOL instrument is being used in the population-based study APEDS to develop a vision - specific QOL instrument which could ptentilly be used to assess the impact of visual impairment on QOL across different cultures and for use in evaluating eye-care interventions. This health-related QOL instrument could also be used to develop other disease-specific instruments as it allows assessment of the extent to which various aspects of QOL are affected by a variety of health problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-70
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2000


  • Health-related
  • India
  • Quality of life
  • Vision


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