Acute leukemia in six horses (1990–2012)

Emily A. Barrell, Midori Goto Asakawa, M. Julia B. Felippe, Thomas J. Divers, Tracy Stokol

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7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Acute leukemia is rare in horses. Herein we describe historical, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in 6 horses with acute leukemia. Medical records of horses with >20% bone marrow blasts and cytochemical or immunophenotyping results were reviewed. Affected horses were 2–8 y of age and of different breeds and sex. Horses were presented acutely with nonspecific signs (e.g., fever, lethargy). Characteristic hemogram findings were bi- or pancytopenia with low blast numbers. Histologic examination revealed extramedullary infiltrates, especially in lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, and lungs. Leukemias were classified as B-cell (n = 3) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 3). Tumors in 4 cases expressed multiple lineage markers, which complicated classification. Acute leukemia should be suspected in horses with moderate-to-severe bi- or pancytopenia. Blood smears should be reviewed for neoplastic cells, and bone marrow examination is required for diagnosis. Leukemia classification is best achieved using combined morphologic, cytochemical, and immunophenotyping results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)529-535
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

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Keywords

  • Acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia
  • equine

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