Acute heart failure

Pradeep P.A. Mammen, William K. Cornwell, Mark P. Birkenbach, Daniel J Garry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Heart failure affects more than six million people in the United States, or 2 % of the population. It exacts a toll on people's health and lives, as well as economically. Most heart failure patients experience at least one episode of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) resulting in an emergency room visit or hospital stay. This chapter focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic assessment, and clinical management of patients who have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and who present to the hospital with ADHF. To guide clinicians in managing acute heart failure, hospitalized patients are typically assigned a hemodynamic profile to determine the degree of hemodynamic compromise, which is useful for tailoring treatment regimens. Other topics addressed in this chapter include the importance of biomarkers, namely, natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins that help with diagnosis, response to therapy, and prognosis; the profile of patients at higher risk for structural complications following myocardial infarction; the use of beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, aldosterone receptor antagonists, and diuretics in medical management; and the benefits and risks of mechanical circulatory support for decompensated heart failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCongestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation
Subtitle of host publicationClinical, Pathology, Imaging and Molecular Profiles
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9783319445779
ISBN (Print)9783319445755
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017


  • Acute decompensated heart failure
  • Cardiac troponins
  • HFrEF
  • Heart failure
  • Heart failure classification
  • Mechanical circulatory support
  • Myocarditis
  • Natriuretic peptides
  • Stevenson Hemodynamic Profile


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