Acute graft-versus-host disease after unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation: Analysis of risk factors

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Abstract

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs less frequently after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). More recent investigations include the use of 2 partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched UCB units, or double UCB graft, to meet the minimum cell-dose requirement. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the relative risk of acute GVHD in 265 consecutive patients receiving transplants with UCB graft composed of1(n = 80) or 2 (n = 185) units. The incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD was similar between cohorts. However, the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was higher among double UCBT recipients (58 vs 39%, P < .01). Three risk factors for grade II-IV acute GVHD were identified in multiple regression analysis: use of 2 UCB units, use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, and absence of antithymocyte globulin in the conditioning regimen. Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at 1 year, however, was significantly lower after double UCBT (24 vs 39%, P = .02) even if recipients had grade II-IV acute GVHD (20 vs 39%, P = .05). These data suggest that, despite a higher incidence of grade II acute GVHD in recipients of 2 partially HLA-matched UCB units, there is no adverse effect on TRM. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under the identifiers NCT00305682 and NCT00309842.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2410-2415
Number of pages6
JournalBlood
Volume113
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 12 2009

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