Purpose: Although skeletal muscle releases cytokines called myokines during exercise, the kinetics of the acute myokine response to exercise (exercise-induced circulatory myokine level alteration) is unknown in patients with advanced prostate cancer. We measured myokine levels in serum obtained from patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) before and after exercise and assessed the growth-suppressive effect of the serum by applying it to a PCa cell line. Methods: Nine patients with mCRPC (age = 67.8 ± 10.1 years, time since mCRPC diagnosis 36.2 ± 22.5 months) undertook 34 min of a high-intensity interval exercise session on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected immediately pre, post and 30 min post. Serum levels of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), oncostatin M (OSM), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-15 (IL-15), decorin, irisin, and IGF-1 were determined. Growth of the androgen-independent PCa cell line DU-145 exposed to serum collected at three points was measured. Results: There was a significant elevation of SPARC (19.9%, P = 0.048), OSM (11.5%, P = 0.001), IL-6 (10.2%, P = 0.02) and IL-15 (7.8%, P = 0.023) in serum collected immediately after exercise compared to baseline, returning to baseline after 30 min rest. A significant reduction in DU-145 Cell growth and the Cell Index area under the curve at 72 h incubation was observed with the presence of serum obtained immediately post-exercise (Cell Index at 72 h: 16.9%, P < 0.001; area under the curve: 15.2%, P < 0.001) and with the presence of serum obtained 30 min post-exercise compared to baseline (Cell Index at 72 h: 6.5%; area under the curve: 8.8%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for an acute exercise-induced myokine response and tumour growth suppression in serum after a bout of high-intensity interval exercise in patients with advanced PCa.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Movember Foundation. National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence (NHMRC-CRE; APP1116334) funded the additional materials involving serum analysis and cell work through Centre for Research Excellence in Prostate Cancer Survivorship. J-SK is supported by the NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Prostate Cancer Survivorship Scholarship.
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
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