Activity and nature of plasminogen activators associated with the casein micelle

B. Ismail, L. H. Choi, L. M. Were, S. S. Nielsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


In fresh milk, plasminogen, the zymogen form of plasmin (PL), is the predominant form. Therefore, plasminogen activators (PA) can contribute significantly to PL activity in milk. Both tissue-type PA (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) exist in milk; however, contradictory findings have been reported for which type of PA is most closely associated with the casein micelles. Little is known about the factors that might lead to variations in the individual activities of the PA. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate possible factors that might affect the association of tPA and uPA with the casein micelle and their activities thereafter. Plasminogen activators were isolated from milk samples with different somatic cell counts following 2 different isolation protocols. Determination of uPA, tPA, and PL activities was carried out quantitatively following chromogenic assays using 2 different substrates, and qualitatively using specialized sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Different isolation methods and conditions led to differences in uPA, tPA, and PL activities. Urokinase-type PA activity was significantly higher in PA fractions isolated from milk with high somatic cell counts than from milk with low somatic cell counts. Activity results indicated that in pasteurized milk uPA could dissociate from the somatic cells and bind to casein. Moreover, a high level of PL in isolated PA fractions contributed to significantly enhanced PA activities. Overall, results confirmed the association of both uPA and tPA with the casein micelle; however, their amounts, activities, and molecular weights varied based on the nature of the milk and methods of separation, with uPA being the PA with greater potential to affect plasminogen activation in milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3285-3295
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by grant 02-35503-11566 of the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program , USDA. The authors wish to thank Kirby D. Hayes, Department of Food Science at Purdue University, for his valued scientific contributions to this manuscript.


  • Casein micelle
  • Plasmin system
  • Plasminogen activator
  • Somatic cell count


Dive into the research topics of 'Activity and nature of plasminogen activators associated with the casein micelle'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this