Naïve CD8 T cells respond to signals provided by Ag, costimulation and cytokines by proliferating and differentiating to develop effector functions. Following initial clonal expansion, however, the cells develop activation-induced non-responsiveness (AINR), a form of anergy characterized by an inability to produce IL-2. Cells in the AINR state can carry out effector functions (cytolysis, IFN-γ production) but cannot continue to proliferate and expand in the face of persisting Ag. AINR limits the ability of activated CTL to control tumor growth but can be reversed by IL-2, provided either therapeutically or by activated CD4 T helper cells, to allow continued expansion.
- CD8 T lymphocyte