Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is expressed in activated B lymphocytes and initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. To determine if different stimuli affect the expression and function of AID, we monitored AID activity in murine B cells stimulated ex vivo with various ligands. AID was rapidly expressed at both the RNA and protein levels following stimulation with LPS, LPS plus IL-4, and anti-CD40 plus IL-4, but was delayed after stimulation with anti-IgM plus IL-4. By day 4, AID was expressed in all groups; however, cells stimulated with anti-IgM plus IL-4 did not undergo switch recombination. These cells expressed normal levels of γ1 germline transcripts, implying that the γ1 switch region was accessible. Furthermore, switching was suppressed by the addition of anti-IgM to cells stimulated with LPS plus IL-4 or anti-CD40 plus IL-4, even though AID was expressed. The lack of class switch recombination could be reversed by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). This suggests that activation through the B cell receptor induces PI3K, which interferes with the function of AID.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the NIH Intramural Research Program. LH-H was supported by a National Research Council Research Associateship Award.
- Activation-induced deaminase
- B cells
- Cell activation