This review focuses on the identification, evaluation, management, and stabilization of a variety of acquired cardiac conditions, such as cardiomyopathies, inflammatory cardiac disease, and Kawasaki disease, which commonly require care in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Pediatric cardiomyopathies comprise a spectrum of acquired or congenital myocardial diseases in which there are abnormalities of cardiac size and ventricular wall thickness, along with ventricular performance. The inflammatory diseases of the heart include acute myocarditis and pericarditis. Cardiac sequelae of Kawasaki disease resemble a self-limited vasculitis, but in rare instances may present with hemodynamic instability requiring vasopressor support. Care in the PICU affords both monitoring and management opportunities.
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