Energy efficiency is a fundamental issue for outdoor sensor network systems. This article presents the design and implementation of multidimensional power management strategies in VigilNet, a major recent effort to support long-term surveillance using power-constrained sensor devices. A novel tripwire service is integrated with an effective sentry and duty cycle scheduling in order to increase the system lifetime, collaboratively. The tripwire service partitions a network into distinct, nonoverlapping sections and allows each section to be scheduled independently. Sentry scheduling selects a subset of nodes, the sentries, which are turned on while the remaining nodes save energy. Duty cycle scheduling allows the active sentries themselves to be turned on and off, further lowering the average power draw. The multidimensional power management strategies proposed in this article were fully implemented within a real sensor network system using the XSM platform. We evaluate key system parameters using a network of 200 XSM nodes in an outdoor environment, and an analytical probabilistic model. We evaluate network lifetime using a simulation of a 10,000-node network that uses measured XSM power values. These evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our integrated approach and identify a set of lessons and guidelines, useful for the future development of energy-efficient sensor systems. One of the key results indicates that the combination of the three presented power management techniques is able to increase the lifetime of a realistic network from 4 days to 200 days.
- And longevity
- Applications of sensor and actuator networks
- Energy and resource management
- Energy conservation
- Network protocols
- Sensor networks