In this study, we demonstrated effects of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) on insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rat L6 cells. TNF-α downregulated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and increased Serine 307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). However, the treatment of ALC improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our data suggest that ALC inhibits TNF-α-induced insulin resistance through AMPK pathway in skeletal muscle cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the foundation (No. 2006BAD27B01) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China.
- AMP-activated protein kinase
- Insulin resistance
- Tumor necrosis factor-α