ACE and PC-1 gene polymorphisms in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients - A 10-year prospective study

Mirela J. De Azevedo, Caroline A. Dalmáz, Maria Luiza A Caramori, Miriam Pecis, Jorge F. Esteves, Ana L. Maia, Jorge L. Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to analyze the role of ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) and PC-1 gene K121Q polymorphisms in the changes of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), and blood pressure (BP) levels in a cohort of normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients. This is a 10.2±2.0-year prospective study of 30 normotensive normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients. UAER (immunoturbidimetry), GFR (51Cr-EDTA single injection technique), GHb (ion exchange chromatography), and BP levels were measured at baseline and at 1.7±0.6-year intervals. The presence of ACE gene I/D and PC-1 gene K121Q polymorphisms was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme techniques. Three patients developed diabetic nephropathy (DN), all carriers of allele D. The presence of allele D was the only predictor (R2=.15, F=4.92, P=.035) of the observed GFR decline (-0.29±0.34 ml/min/month, P<.05). UAER increased during the study (log UAER=0.0275±0.042 μg/min/month, P=.002) and was associated with baseline UAER levels only (R2=.17, F=5.72, P=.024). A significant increase (P<.05) in cases of hypertension and retinopathy were observed in ID/DD (n=19) and not in II patients (n=11). Patients with the KQ/QQ genotype (n=8) presented a significant increase (P=.045) in new cases of retinopathy. In conclusion, the presence of the ACE gene D allele in this sample of normoalbuminuric normotensive Type 1 diabetic patients was associated with a higher proportion of microvascular complications and hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-262
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by grants from Programa de Apoio a Núcleos de Excelência (PRONEX), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, and Hospital de Clı́nicas de Porto Alegre.

Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Albuminuria
  • Blood pressure
  • Gene polymorphism
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus


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