Accessibility Impacts of Park-and-Ride Systems

Kristin Carlson, Andrew Owen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This work presents a methodology for calculating park-and-ride (PNR) accessibility and provides case study results for the Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Minnesota (Twin Cities) facility system. PNR is a form of mixed-mode transit travel which is studied for its impacts on access to opportunities. Regional PNR systems offer a long-standing and widespread example of the collective benefits of mixed-mode travel. The Twin Cities metropolitan region has over 100 PNR facilities that are primarily connected to business districts through express and limited-stop transit service. PNR trip types require automobile and transit travel time matrices to link across space and time to capture mixed-mode travel characteristics. The resulting matrix is used in a cumulative accessibility analysis in which total jobs accessible within a travel time threshold is the variable of interest. Experimental results indicate that PNR facilities affect the suburban transit accessibility profile more than exurban or urban areas during the morning commute. The average worker-weighted job accessibility for a 30-min PNR trip increases by 230% from the comparable walk-to-transit measure. The transit accessibility made available through PNR facilities highlights the need to include PNR trip types in transit accessibility analyses and suggests that current methods underestimate transit accessibility in suburban regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTransportation Research Record
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


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