Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre

A. Abramowski, F. Aharonian, F. Ait Benkhali, A. G. Akhperjanian, E. O. Anguner, M. Backes, A. Balzer, Y. Becherini, J. Becker Tjus, D. Berge, S. Bernhard, K. Bernlohr, E. Birsin, R. Blackwell, M. Bottcher, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, P. Bordas, J. Bregeon, F. BrunP. Brun, M. Bryan, T. Bulik, J. Carr, S. Casanova, N. Chakraborty, R. Chalme-Calvet, R. C G Chaves, A. Chen, M. Chretien, S. Colafrancesco, G. Cologna, J. Conrad, C. Couturier, Y. Cui, I. D. Davids, B. Degrange, C. Deil, P. DeWilt, A. Djannati-Atai, W. Domainko, A. Donath, L. O. Drury, G. Dubus, K. Dutson, J. Dyks, M. Dyrda, T. Edwards, K. Egberts, P. Eger, J. P. Ernenwein, P. Espigat, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, F. Feinstein, M. V. Fernandes, D. Fernandez, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, A. Forster, M. Fusling, S. Gabici, M. Gajdus, Y. A. Gallant, T. Garrigoux, G. Giavitto, B. Giebels, J. F. Glicenstein, D. Gottschall, A. Goyal, M. H. Grondin, M. Grudzińska, D. Hadasch, S. Haffner, J. Hahn, J. Hawkes, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, O. Hervet, A. Hillert, J. A. Hinton, W. Hofmann, P. Hofverberg, C. Hoischen, M. Holler, D. Horns, A. Ivascenko, A. Jacholkowska, M. Jamrozy, M. Janiak, F. Jankowsky, I. Jung-Richardt, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, U. Katz, D. Kerszberg, B. Khelifi, M. Kieffer, S. Klepser, D. Klochkov, W. Kluźniak, D. Kolitzus, N. Komin, K. Kosack, S. Krakau, F. Krayzel, P. P. Kruger, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna, J. Lau, J. Lefaucheur, V. Lefranc, A. Lemiere, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. P. Lenain, T. Lohse, A. Lopatin, C. C. Lu, R. Lui, V. Marandon, A. Marcowith, C. Mariaud, R. Marx, G. Maurin, N. Maxted, M. Mayer, P. J. Meintjes, U. Menzler, M. Meyer, A. M W Mitchell, R. Moderski, M. Mohamed, K. Mora, E. Moulin, T. Murach, M. De Naurois, J. Niemiec, L. Oakes, H. Odaka, S. Ottl, S. Ohm, B. Opitz, M. Ostrowski, I. Oya, M. Panter, R. D. Parsons, M. Paz Arribas, N. W. Pekeur, G. Pelletier, P. O. Petrucci, B. Peyaud, S. Pita, H. Poon, H. Prokoph, G. Puhlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, S. Raab, I. Reichardt, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, R. De Los Reyes, F. Rieger, C. Romoli, S. Rosier-Lees, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, C. B. Rulten, V. Sahakian, D. Salek, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, M. Sasaki, R. Schlickeiser, F. Schussler, A. Schulz, U. Schwanke, S. Schwemmer, A. S. Seyffert, R. Simoni, H. Sol, F. Spanier, G. Spengler, F. Spies, L. Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, F. Stinzing, K. Stycz, I. Sushch, J. P. Tavernet, T. Tavernier, A. M. Taylor, R. Terrier, M. Tluczykont, C. Trichard, R. Tuffs, K. Valerius, J. Van Der Walt, C. Van Eldik, B. Van Soelen, G. Vasileiadis, J. Veh, C. Venter, A. Viana, P. Vincent, J. Vink, F. Voisin, H. J. Volk, T. Vuillaume, S. J. Wagner, P. Wagner, R. M. Wagner, M. Weidinger, Q. Weitzel, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, P. Willmann, A. Wornlein, D. Wouters, R. Yang, V. Zabalza, D. Zaborov, M. Zacharias, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, F. Zefi, N. Zywucka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

238 Scopus citations


Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts1 (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators (PeVatrons), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies2. Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 1013 electronvolts) were inferred from recent γ-ray observations3. However, none of the currently known accelerators- not even the handful of shell-type supernova remnants commonly believed to supply most Galactic cosmic rays-has shown the characteristic tracers of petaelectronvolt particles, namely, powerlaw spectra of γ-rays extending without a cut-off or a spectral break to tens of teraelectronvolts4. Here we report deep γ-ray observations with arcminute angular resolution of the region surrounding the Galactic Centre, which show the expected tracer of the presence of petaelectronvolt protons within the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy. We propose that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A is linked to this PeVatron. Sagittarius A went through active phases in the past, as demonstrated by X-ray outbursts5 and an outflow from the Galactic Centre6. Although its current rate of particle acceleration is not sufficient to provide a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays, Sagittarius A could have plausibly been more active over the last 106107 years, and therefore should be considered as a viable alternative to supernova remnants as a source of petaelectronvolt Galactic cosmic rays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)476-478
Number of pages3
Issue number7595
StatePublished - Mar 24 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Dive into the research topics of 'Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this