Background. Avenanthramides (AVA) are a group of diphenolic acids found only in oats that have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Absorption of AVAs in humans after oral consumption of natural oat flour is unknown. Objective. To examine the appearance of AVAs in plasma after oral ingestion of oat cookies and estimate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Methods. Male and female nonobese participants (n=16) consumed three cookies made with oat flour containing high (229.6 mg/kg, H-AVA) or low (32.7 mg/kg, L-AVA) amounts of AVAs, including AVA-A, AVA-B, and AVA-C. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 h after ingestion. Plasma total (conjugated and free) AVA concentrations were quantified using UPLC-MS, and pharmacokinetic parameters for each AVA were estimated. Results. AVAs reached peak concentrations in plasma between 2 and 3 h for the H-AVA group and between 1 and 2 h for the L-AVA group. Maximal plasma concentrations for AVAs were higher in the H-AVA than in the L-AVA group. AVA-B demonstrated a longer half-life and slower elimination rate than AVA-A and AVA-C. Conclusions. AVAs found naturally in oats are absorbed in the plasma after oral administration in humans. AVA-B has the slowest elimination rate and the longest half-life compared to AVA-A and AVA-C, while AVA-C demonstrated the lowest plasma concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02415374.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was sponsored by PepsiCo Nutrition. Jodee Johnson and YiFang Chu are full-time employees of PepsiCo Inc., which manufactures oatmeal products under the brand name Quaker Oats. YiFang Chu and Jodee Johnson claim conflicts of interest.