Absolute calibration forms a valuable diagnostic tool in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments, and allows the parameters of a given model to be restricted to the set which reproduces the observed intensity. Discrepancies between the observed and calculated intensities may arise from potential artifacts or even new physical processes and absolute calibration methods are useful in delineating these circumstances. General methods which are available for absolute scaling are discussed along with estimates of the degree of internal consistency which may be achieved between the various standards. In order to minimize the time devoted to calibration in a given experimental program, emphasis is placed on developing a set of precalibrated strongly scattering standards which may be run in the chosen experimental geometry. Comparison of such a set developed at the National Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research (Oak Ridge) with independent determinations by SANS users indicates consistency to within ± 5%.
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© 1987, Wiley-Blackwell. All rights reserved.