Aberrant Nuclear Translocation of E2F1 and Its Association in Cushing's Disease

Takako Araki, Justin Wang, Ryan Lawrence, Yasuhiko Kawakami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Nonsurgical medical treatments are often performed for Cushing's disease due to high recurrence rates. However, current medical treatment that targets corticotroph adenomas are limited. To develop a treatment that specifically targets corticotrophs in Cushing's disease, it is necessary to identify corticotroph lineage-specific proteins, which are involved in the Cushing's tumor phenotype. We have previously reported that the expression of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), one of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, was increased in corticotrophs in Cushing's disease model mice and was involved in the regulation of POMC gene expression. Phosphorylation of Ser337 of E2F1 (pS337-E2F1) facilitates its binding to the POMC promoter, which was suggested to contribute to elevated POMC expression in corticotrophs. Here, we report that E2F1 expression is specific to the corticotroph lineage in normal human pituitaries and that the E2F1 protein is localized in the cytosol in normal corticotrophs. We show that pS337-E2F1 is localized in the nucleus specifically in Cushing's tumors, while it is localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm in the normal pituitary. This observation demonstrates that pS337 is a marker for Cushing's tumors and suggests that phosphorylation of E2F1 may be a target for developing a novel pharmacological treatment for tumorigenesis and hormone dysregulation of Cushing's disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberbqac086
JournalEndocrinology (United States)
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s) 2022


  • corticotroph
  • Cushing's disease
  • E2F1
  • POMC
  • pS337-E2F1

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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