Human kidney tissue obtained at pretransplant nephrectomy from 13 adults and 1 child with end stage renal disease was cultured to provide a source for attempted detection of viruses. Cultures were observed throughout their life span for cytopathogenic viruses. Supernatants from 13 cultures were tested for hemagglutinating viruses (including measles, rubella, influenza, parainfluenza, and mumps) using various species of red blood cells. Kidney cells were cocultivated with Vero and human foreskin cells and indirect immunofluorescence was attempted in one instance. No viruses were detected. Nevertheless, 9 of the 14 patients developed infections with herpes group viruses post-transplant. Either replicating viruses were not present in the kidneys of the patients prior to transplant or the techniques used were not adequate to detect them. However, the establishment of organ cultures from patients with chronic renal disease is practical and may be a useful method for further virological investigation.