A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy

A. U. Abeysekara, A. Archer, T. Aune, W. Benbow, R. Bird, R. Brose, M. Buchovecky, V. Bugaev, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, H. Fleischhack, A. Flinders, Lucy F Fortson, A. Furniss, E. V. Gotthelf, J. Grube, D. HannaO. Hervet, J. Holder, K. Huang, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, M. Hütten, C. A. Johnson, P. Kaaret, P. Kar, N. Kelley-Hoskins, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, M. Krause, S. Kumar, M. J. Lang, T. T.Y. Lin, G. Maier, S. McArthur, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, S. O'Brien, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, N. Park, A. Petrashyk, M. Pohl, A. Popkow, E. Pueschel, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P. T. Reynolds, G. T. Richards, E. Roache, J. Rousselle, Cameron B Rulten, I. Sadeh, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, Karlen Shahinyan, J. Tyler, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, A. Weinstein, R. M. Wells, P. Wilcox, A. Wilhelm, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present results from deep observations toward the Cygnus region using 300 hr of very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data taken with the VERITAS Cerenkov telescope array and over 7 yr of high-energy γ-ray data taken with the Fermi satellite at an energy above 1 GeV. As the brightest region of diffuse γ-ray emission in the northern sky, the Cygnus region provides a promising area to probe the origins of cosmic rays. We report the identification of a potential Fermi-LAT counterpart to VER J2031+415 (TeV J2032+4130) and resolve the extended VHE source VER J2019+368 into two source candidates (VER J2018+367∗ and VER J2020+368∗) and characterize their energy spectra. The Fermi-LAT morphology of 3FGL J2021.0+4031e (the Gamma Cygni supernova remnant) was examined, and a region of enhanced emission coincident with VER J2019+407 was identified and jointly fit with the VERITAS data. By modeling 3FGL J2015.6+3709 as two sources, one located at the location of the pulsar wind nebula CTB 87 and one at the quasar QSO J2015+371, a continuous spectrum from 1 GeV to 10 TeV was extracted for VER J2016+371 (CTB 87). An additional 71 locations coincident with Fermi-LAT sources and other potential objects of interest were tested for VHE γ-ray emission, with no emission detected and upper limits on the differential flux placed at an average of 2.3% of the Crab Nebula flux. We interpret these observations in a multiwavelength context and present the most detailed γ-ray view of the region to date.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number134
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume861
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 10 2018

Fingerprint

rays
galaxies
energy
quasars
northern sky
Crab nebula
continuous spectra
energy sources
supernova remnants
nebulae
pulsars
cosmic ray
crab
cosmic rays
energy spectra
probe
telescopes
probes
modeling

Keywords

  • ISM: supernova remnants
  • acceleration of particles
  • cosmic rays
  • gamma rays: general

Cite this

Abeysekara, A. U., Archer, A., Aune, T., Benbow, W., Bird, R., Brose, R., ... Zitzer, B. (2018). A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy. Astrophysical Journal, 861(2), [134]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a2

A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy. / Abeysekara, A. U.; Archer, A.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, Lucy F; Furniss, A.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grube, J.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Huang, K.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Hütten, M.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T.Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O'Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rousselle, J.; Rulten, Cameron B; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Tyler, J.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, No. 2, 134, 10.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abeysekara, AU, Archer, A, Aune, T, Benbow, W, Bird, R, Brose, R, Buchovecky, M, Bugaev, V, Cui, W, Daniel, MK, Falcone, A, Feng, Q, Finley, JP, Fleischhack, H, Flinders, A, Fortson, LF, Furniss, A, Gotthelf, EV, Grube, J, Hanna, D, Hervet, O, Holder, J, Huang, K, Hughes, G, Humensky, TB, Hütten, M, Johnson, CA, Kaaret, P, Kar, P, Kelley-Hoskins, N, Kertzman, M, Kieda, D, Krause, M, Kumar, S, Lang, MJ, Lin, TTY, Maier, G, McArthur, S, Moriarty, P, Mukherjee, R, O'Brien, S, Ong, RA, Otte, AN, Pandel, D, Park, N, Petrashyk, A, Pohl, M, Popkow, A, Pueschel, E, Quinn, J, Ragan, K, Reynolds, PT, Richards, GT, Roache, E, Rousselle, J, Rulten, CB, Sadeh, I, Santander, M, Sembroski, GH, Shahinyan, K, Tyler, J, Vassiliev, VV, Wakely, SP, Ward, JE, Weinstein, A, Wells, RM, Wilcox, P, Wilhelm, A, Williams, DA & Zitzer, B 2018, 'A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 861, no. 2, 134. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a2
Abeysekara AU, Archer A, Aune T, Benbow W, Bird R, Brose R et al. A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy. Astrophysical Journal. 2018 Jul 10;861(2). 134. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a2
Abeysekara, A. U. ; Archer, A. ; Aune, T. ; Benbow, W. ; Bird, R. ; Brose, R. ; Buchovecky, M. ; Bugaev, V. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M. K. ; Falcone, A. ; Feng, Q. ; Finley, J. P. ; Fleischhack, H. ; Flinders, A. ; Fortson, Lucy F ; Furniss, A. ; Gotthelf, E. V. ; Grube, J. ; Hanna, D. ; Hervet, O. ; Holder, J. ; Huang, K. ; Hughes, G. ; Humensky, T. B. ; Hütten, M. ; Johnson, C. A. ; Kaaret, P. ; Kar, P. ; Kelley-Hoskins, N. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Krause, M. ; Kumar, S. ; Lang, M. J. ; Lin, T. T.Y. ; Maier, G. ; McArthur, S. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; O'Brien, S. ; Ong, R. A. ; Otte, A. N. ; Pandel, D. ; Park, N. ; Petrashyk, A. ; Pohl, M. ; Popkow, A. ; Pueschel, E. ; Quinn, J. ; Ragan, K. ; Reynolds, P. T. ; Richards, G. T. ; Roache, E. ; Rousselle, J. ; Rulten, Cameron B ; Sadeh, I. ; Santander, M. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Shahinyan, Karlen ; Tyler, J. ; Vassiliev, V. V. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Ward, J. E. ; Weinstein, A. ; Wells, R. M. ; Wilcox, P. ; Wilhelm, A. ; Williams, D. A. ; Zitzer, B. / A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 861, No. 2.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A Very High Energy γ-Ray Survey toward the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy

AU - Abeysekara, A. U.

AU - Archer, A.

AU - Aune, T.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Bird, R.

AU - Brose, R.

AU - Buchovecky, M.

AU - Bugaev, V.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Daniel, M. K.

AU - Falcone, A.

AU - Feng, Q.

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Fleischhack, H.

AU - Flinders, A.

AU - Fortson, Lucy F

AU - Furniss, A.

AU - Gotthelf, E. V.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Hervet, O.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Huang, K.

AU - Hughes, G.

AU - Humensky, T. B.

AU - Hütten, M.

AU - Johnson, C. A.

AU - Kaaret, P.

AU - Kar, P.

AU - Kelley-Hoskins, N.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Krause, M.

AU - Kumar, S.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - Lin, T. T.Y.

AU - Maier, G.

AU - McArthur, S.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Mukherjee, R.

AU - O'Brien, S.

AU - Ong, R. A.

AU - Otte, A. N.

AU - Pandel, D.

AU - Park, N.

AU - Petrashyk, A.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Popkow, A.

AU - Pueschel, E.

AU - Quinn, J.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Reynolds, P. T.

AU - Richards, G. T.

AU - Roache, E.

AU - Rousselle, J.

AU - Rulten, Cameron B

AU - Sadeh, I.

AU - Santander, M.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Shahinyan, Karlen

AU - Tyler, J.

AU - Vassiliev, V. V.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Ward, J. E.

AU - Weinstein, A.

AU - Wells, R. M.

AU - Wilcox, P.

AU - Wilhelm, A.

AU - Williams, D. A.

AU - Zitzer, B.

PY - 2018/7/10

Y1 - 2018/7/10

N2 - We present results from deep observations toward the Cygnus region using 300 hr of very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data taken with the VERITAS Cerenkov telescope array and over 7 yr of high-energy γ-ray data taken with the Fermi satellite at an energy above 1 GeV. As the brightest region of diffuse γ-ray emission in the northern sky, the Cygnus region provides a promising area to probe the origins of cosmic rays. We report the identification of a potential Fermi-LAT counterpart to VER J2031+415 (TeV J2032+4130) and resolve the extended VHE source VER J2019+368 into two source candidates (VER J2018+367∗ and VER J2020+368∗) and characterize their energy spectra. The Fermi-LAT morphology of 3FGL J2021.0+4031e (the Gamma Cygni supernova remnant) was examined, and a region of enhanced emission coincident with VER J2019+407 was identified and jointly fit with the VERITAS data. By modeling 3FGL J2015.6+3709 as two sources, one located at the location of the pulsar wind nebula CTB 87 and one at the quasar QSO J2015+371, a continuous spectrum from 1 GeV to 10 TeV was extracted for VER J2016+371 (CTB 87). An additional 71 locations coincident with Fermi-LAT sources and other potential objects of interest were tested for VHE γ-ray emission, with no emission detected and upper limits on the differential flux placed at an average of 2.3% of the Crab Nebula flux. We interpret these observations in a multiwavelength context and present the most detailed γ-ray view of the region to date.

AB - We present results from deep observations toward the Cygnus region using 300 hr of very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data taken with the VERITAS Cerenkov telescope array and over 7 yr of high-energy γ-ray data taken with the Fermi satellite at an energy above 1 GeV. As the brightest region of diffuse γ-ray emission in the northern sky, the Cygnus region provides a promising area to probe the origins of cosmic rays. We report the identification of a potential Fermi-LAT counterpart to VER J2031+415 (TeV J2032+4130) and resolve the extended VHE source VER J2019+368 into two source candidates (VER J2018+367∗ and VER J2020+368∗) and characterize their energy spectra. The Fermi-LAT morphology of 3FGL J2021.0+4031e (the Gamma Cygni supernova remnant) was examined, and a region of enhanced emission coincident with VER J2019+407 was identified and jointly fit with the VERITAS data. By modeling 3FGL J2015.6+3709 as two sources, one located at the location of the pulsar wind nebula CTB 87 and one at the quasar QSO J2015+371, a continuous spectrum from 1 GeV to 10 TeV was extracted for VER J2016+371 (CTB 87). An additional 71 locations coincident with Fermi-LAT sources and other potential objects of interest were tested for VHE γ-ray emission, with no emission detected and upper limits on the differential flux placed at an average of 2.3% of the Crab Nebula flux. We interpret these observations in a multiwavelength context and present the most detailed γ-ray view of the region to date.

KW - ISM: supernova remnants

KW - acceleration of particles

KW - cosmic rays

KW - gamma rays: general

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