A variance components analysis of manually digitized map data

P. V. Bolstad, P. Gessler, T. M. Lillesand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This paper reports on a characterization of the nature, magnitude, and relative contribution of several sources to the total positional uncertainty in manually digitized data. Manually digitized point data were collected by four operators from mylar and paper maps. Point locations for a number of different feature types were sampled from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24 000 scale maps. A balanced nested linear model was used to estimate the variance components due to map media, point type, and registration effects among operators. Variance components indicate among-operator differences in positional uncertainty were large and statistically significant, while differences among point type are small and non-significant. The relative contributions of source document, map media, and registration uncertainty among operators are discussed. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-207
Number of pages7
JournalSurveying & Land Information Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990


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