A Transactional/Ecological Perspective on Ethnic–Racial Identity, Socialization, and Discrimination

Diane L. Hughes, Jon Alexander Watford, Juan Del Toro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

170 Scopus citations


We first review current literature on three ethnic–racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic–racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic–racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and mutually defining and that an ecological/transactional perspective on these ethnic–racial dynamics shifts researchers’ gaze from studying them as individual-level processes to studying the features of settings that produce them. We describe what is known about how identity, socialization, and discrimination occur in four microsystems—families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods—and argue that focusing on specific characteristics of these microsystems in which particular types of identity, socialization, and discrimination processes cooccur would be informative.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEquity and Justice in Developmental Science
Subtitle of host publicationImplications for Young People, Families, and Communities, 2016
EditorsStacey S. Horn, Martin D. Ruck, Lynn S. Liben
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages41
ISBN (Print)9780128018965
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Child Development and Behavior
ISSN (Print)0065-2407

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.


  • Adolescence
  • Discrimination
  • Ecological
  • Ethnicity
  • Identity
  • Race
  • Socialization


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