A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients

A. M. Api, D. Belsito, D. Bickers, M. Bruze, P. Calow, M. L. Dagli, A. D. Fryer, H. Greim, Y. Miyachi, J. H. Saurat, I. G. Sipes

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    66 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    The aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives (AAASAE) group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search of the pertinent data. For high end users, calculated maximum skin exposures vary widely from 0.01% to 4.17%. AAASAE exhibit a common route of primary metabolism by carboxylesterases resulting in the formation of the simple acid and an aryl alkyl alcohol. They have low acute toxicity. No significant toxicity was observed in repeat-dose toxicity tests. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity of benzyl alcohol when it was administered in the feed; gavage studies resulted in pancreatic carcinogenesis due to the corn oil vehicle. The AAASAE are not mutagenic in bacterial systems or in vitro in mammalian cells, and have little to no in vivo genotoxicity. Reproductive and developmental toxicity data show no indication of adverse effects on reproductive function and NOELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current exposure levels. The AAASAE are generally not irritating or sensitizing at the current levels of exposure. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding the AAASAE at the current levels of use and exposure.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)S269-S313
    JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
    Volume50
    Issue numberSUPPL. 2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Sep 2012

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This research was supported by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, an independent research institute that is funded by the manufacturers of fragrances and consumer products containing fragrances. The authors are all members of the Expert Panel for Fragrance Materials, an independent group of experts who evaluate the safety of fragrance materials.

    Keywords

    • Aryl alkyl alcohol
    • Fragrance ingredients
    • Review
    • Safety
    • Simple acid ester

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