A sustainable reduction roasting technology to upgrade the ferruginous manganese ores

Veerendra Singh, Kallam VK Reddy, Sunil Kumar Tripathy, Prerna Kumari, Amit K. Dubey, R. Mohanty, R. R. Satpathy, Sirsendu Mukherjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Reduction roasting of manganese ores is a known process; however, it is not yet commercialized mainly due to various techno-economic issues. The current research work presents results of a large-scale plant trial performed at a commercial Direct Reduced Iron making plant to upgrade low-grade ferruginous manganese ores (Mn: 25–32%, Mn/Fe: ∼1). Trials were carried out using a lot of 2000 of tons low grades ferruginous manganese ores of three different types. Experiments were designed to test 3 levels of two different variables for each type of ore. Raw material feed rate (3, 4.5, and 6tph) and feed coal proportion (25, 29,33% of ore) were the prime process variables. Process settings were identified and fixed to limit the occurrence of undesired chemical reactions to restrict the formation of complex MnxFe3-xO4 phases and dilution of reducing atmosphere. Ores were crushed into 0–15 mm size, reduce-roasted at 950 °C in a rotary kiln, crushed into <3 mm size, and passed through a magnetic separator. The technology can enhance the Mn content of the ores by > 15 units (Mn: 30%→46%) and can bring down the Fe content by > 15 units (Fe: 27%→12%) in the produced ore concentrate. The developed process could achieve product yield ∼50% and Mn Recovery>70%. The Mn-rich concentrate was successfully converted into extrusion briquettes and consumed in a submerged arc furnace for ferroalloy making. The iron-rich by-product was successfully used as a sinter mix for steelmaking process. Techno-economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis have also been carried out. Studies indicated that roasting of ferruginous manganese ores at a commercial Direct Reduced Iron plant is an adaptable and sustainable solution to upgrade the low-grade Mn resources in the dynamic global Mn ore market.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number124784
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume284
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Briquetting
  • Direct reduced iron
  • Ferroalloys
  • Manganese ore
  • Reduction roasting
  • Upgradation

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