A Survey of the Sources of Noise in fMRI

Douglas N. Greve, Gregory G. Brown, Bryon A. Mueller, Gary Glover, Thomas T. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive method for measuring brain function by correlating temporal changes in local cerebral blood oxygenation with behavioral measures. fMRI is used to study individuals at single time points, across multiple time points (with or without intervention), as well as to examine the variation of brain function across normal and ill populations. fMRI may be collected at multiple sites and then pooled into a single analysis. This paper describes how fMRI data is analyzed at each of these levels and describes the noise sources introduced at each level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)396-416
Number of pages21
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Support for this research was provided in part by the National Center for Research Resources (P41-RR14075, R01 RR16594, P41-009874, the NCRR BIRN Morphometric Project BIRN002, and Functional Imaging Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) U24 RR021382), the National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (R01 EB001550, R01EB006758), as well as by the Department of Energy (DE-F02-99ER62764-A012) to the Mind Research Network (previously known as the MIND Institute).


  • blood oxygen level dependent
  • first-level analysis
  • functional MRI
  • higher level analysis
  • sources of noise


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