A Survey of Electric-Scooter Riders’ Route Choice, Safety Perception, and Helmet Use

Kelsey Sievert, Madeleine Roen, Curtis M. Craig, Nichole L. Morris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study investigated electric-scooter (e-scooter) rider behaviors and preferences to inform ways to increase safety for e-scooter riders. Data was collected from 329 e-scooter riders via two online and one in-person survey. Survey questions considered rider roadway infrastructure preferences, safety perceptions, and helmet-wearing behavior. Protected bike lanes were more commonly indicated as the safest infrastructure (62.4%) but were less likely to be the most preferred infrastructure (49.7%). Sidewalks were better matched between riders, indicating them as their preferred riding infrastructure (22.7%) and the perceived safest riding infrastructure (24.5%). Riders had low feelings of safety and preference for riding on major/neighborhood streets or on unprotected bike lanes. Riders reported significant concern about being hit by a moving vehicle, running into a pothole/rough roadway, and running into a moving vehicle. In line with the Theory of Planned Behavior, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of riding and helmet-wearing behavior, with more frequent riders being more likely to wear helmets. Findings suggest that existing roadway infrastructure may pose safety challenges and encourage rider-selected workarounds. Public policy may consider emphasizing protected bicycle lane development, rather than helmet mandates, to support e-scooter riding safety for all vulnerable road users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6609
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • e-scooter
  • electric scooter
  • micromobility
  • mobility services
  • preferences
  • safety perception


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