Charge in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown HfO2 gate stacks has been systematically studied using nMOS capacitors. It is found that, for these films, the charge in the stack is mainly concentrated at the interfaces between the layers and is negative at the HfO2/interfacial layer (IL) interface and positive at the Si/ IL interface. In general, the calculated charge densities at both interfaces are of order 1012 cm-2. A forming gas anneal (FGA) reduces both interface charge greatly. The FGA can also significantly reduce the hysteresis and interface state density. The effects of post deposition anneal at various temperatures and under various ambients have also been studied. It is found that a high-temperature dilute oxidizing ambient anneal followed by an FGA reduces the charge at both interfaces.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received December 27, 2004; revised May 27, 2005. This work was supported in part by the Semiconductor Research Corporation under Contract 1060, and in part by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Infrastructure Network (NNIN). The review of this paper was arranged by Editor G. Groeseneken.
- Gate stack
- High-κ dielectrics
- Metal gate electrode