A study on aroma release and perception of saffron ice cream using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches

Samira Feyzi, Mehdi Varidi, Mohammad Reza Housaindokht, Zarrin Es'haghi, Raffaele Romano, Paola Piombino, Alessandro Genovese

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11 Scopus citations


The effect of fat nature (dairy fat, and combination of dairy fat with sunflower oil) and its substitution with whey protein isolate (WPI) (0, 5% and 7.5%) on aroma release and perception from six saffron ice creams was studied through in-vitro, retro- and ortho-nasal approaches, and sensory evaluation. Compared with full-fat (10% fat) saffron ice creams, light (5% fat) and low-fat (2.5% fat) samples were accompanied with more safranal release into the vial headspace (0.0126, 0.0177, and 0.0220 ppm, respectively) and mouth cavity (100%, 153.6%, and 235.6%, respectively). Gas chromatography/Olfactometry showed that the most sensation of the majority of aroma compounds was from - low-fat and dairy fat-based samples. Results of in-mouth and ortho-nasal pathways studies coincided, indicating no significant difference (P<0.05) in aroma release among full-fat and light samples with two different fat types. These findings would suggest WPI as an appropriate fat replacer in light saffron ice creams for aroma delivery purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102455
JournalInnovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors appreciated support of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran) and FFABR ?Fondo per il Finanziamento delle Attivit? Base di Ricerca? ? MIUR 2017, Italy. Moreover, the cooperation of researchers and students of divisions of Vine and Wine Sciences, and Food Science and Technology of Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Italy in performing in-vivo and sensory analyses is highly acknowledged. Samira Feyzi: Conceptualization, investigation, methodology, formal analysis, validation, and writing original draft. Mehdi Varidi: Conceptualization, formal analysis, visualization, review and editing manuscript. Mohammad Reza Housaindokht: Review and editing the manuscript. Zarrin Es'haghi: Review and editing the manuscript. Raffaele Romano: Resources, and software. Paola Piombino: Resources, software, and review and editing the manuscript. Alessandro Genovese: Conceptualization, methodology, validation, resources, supervision, review and editing manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Fat nature
  • GC/Olfactometry
  • Intra-oral-SPME-GC/MS
  • Natural flavor
  • PCA
  • Whey protein isolate


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