This study examined the psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a population (N = 7998) of young smokers entering US Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT). An exploratory factor analysis suggested that the FTND is comprised of two factors. The first factor, labeled Smoking Pattern, included items assessing the number of cigarettes smoked per day, time to first cigarette, difficulty refraining from smoking, and smoking when ill. The second factor, labeled Morning Smoking, consisted of two items measuring whether one smokes more in the morning and whether one would rather give up the first cigarette of the day or all others. The Smoking Pattern factor proved to have adequate internal consistency, impressive criterion-related validity, and was strongly related to smoking cessation 1 year following BMT. In contrast, the Morning Smoking factor demonstrated questionable psychometric properties and was not supported by a confirmatory factor analysis.