A study of the effect of molecular and aerosol conditions in the atmosphere on air fluorescence measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

J. Abraham, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, C. Aguirre, E. J. Ahn, D. Allard, I. Allekotte, J. Allen, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, M. Ambrosio, L. Anchordoqui, S. Andringa, A. Anzalone, C. Aramo, E. Arganda, K. Arisaka, F. Arqueros, T. Asch, H. Asorey, P. AssisJ. Aublin, M. Ave, G. Avila, T. Bäcker, D. Badagnani, K. B. Barber, A. F. Barbosa, S. L C Barroso, B. Baughman, P. Bauleo, J. J. Beatty, T. Beau, B. R. Becker, K. H. Becker, A. Bellétoile, J. A. Bellido, S. BenZvi, C. Berat, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, P. Billoir, O. Blanch-Bigas, F. Blanco, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, R. Bonino, N. Borodai, J. Brack, P. Brogueira, W. C. Brown, R. Bruijn, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, R. E. Burton, N. G. Busca, K. S. Caballero-Mora, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, O. Catalano, L. Cazon, R. Cester, J. Chauvin, A. Chiavassa, J. A. Chinellato, A. Chou, J. Chudoba, J. Chye, R. W. Clay, E. Colombo, R. Conceição, F. Contreras, H. Cook, J. Coppens, A. Cordier, U. Cotti, S. Coutu, C. E. Covault, A. Creusot, A. Criss, J. Cronin, A. Curutiu, S. Dagoret-Campagne, R. Dallier, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, R. M. de Almeida, M. De Domenico, C. De Donato, S. J. de Jong, G. De La Vega, W. J M de Mello Junior, J. R T de Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, V. de Souza, K. D. de Vries, G. Decerprit, L. del Peral, O. Deligny, A. Della Selva, C. Delle Fratte, H. Dembinski, C. Di Giulio, J. C. Diaz, P. N. Diep, C. Dobrigkeit, J. C. D'Olivo, P. N. Dong, A. Dorofeev, J. C. dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, D. D'Urso, I. Dutan, M. A. DuVernois, J. Ebr, R. Engel, M. Erdmann, C. O. Escobar, A. Etchegoyen, P. Facal San Luis, H. Falcke, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, F. Ferrer, A. Ferrero, B. Fick, A. Filevich, A. Filipčič, I. Fleck, S. Fliescher, C. E. Fracchiolla, E. D. Fraenkel, W. Fulgione, R. F. Gamarra, S. Gambetta, B. García, D. García Gámez, D. Garcia-Pinto, X. Garrido, G. Gelmini, H. Gemmeke, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giller, H. Glass, L. M. Goggin, M. S. Gold, G. Golup, F. Gomez Albarracin, M. Gómez Berisso, P. Gonçalves, D. Gonzalez, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, P. Gouffon, S. R. Gozzini, E. Grashorn, S. Grebe, M. Grigat, A. F. Grillo, Y. Guardincerri, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, J. Gutiérrez, J. D. Hague, V. Halenka, P. Hansen, D. Harari, S. Harmsma, J. L. Harton, A. Haungs, M. D. Healy, T. Hebbeker, G. Hebrero, D. Heck, C. Hojvat, V. C. Holmes, P. Homola, J. R. Hörandel, A. Horneffer, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, M. Hussain, M. Iarlori, A. Insolia, F. Ionita, A. Italiano, S. Jiraskova, M. Kaducak, K. H. Kampert, T. Karova, P. Kasper, B. Kégl, B. Keilhauer, J. Kelley, E. Kemp, R. M. Kieckhafer, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, R. Knapik, J. Knapp, D. H. Koang, A. Krieger, O. Krömer, D. Kruppke-Hansen, F. Kuehn, D. Kuempel, K. Kulbartz, N. Kunka, A. Kusenko, G. La Rosa, C. Lachaud, B. L. Lago, P. Lautridou, M. S A B Leão, D. Lebrun, P. Lebrun, J. Lee, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, A. Lemiere, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, R. López, A. Lopez Agüera, K. Louedec, J. Lozano Bahilo, A. Lucero, M. Ludwig, H. Lyberis, M. C. Maccarone, C. Macolino, S. Maldera, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A. G. Mariazzi, I. C. Maris, H. R. Marquez Falcon, G. Marsella, D. Martello, O. Martínez Bravo, H. J. Mathes, J. Matthews, J. A J Matthews, G. Matthiae, D. Maurizio, P. O. Mazur, M. McEwen, R. R. McNeil, G. Medina-Tanco, M. Melissas, D. Melo, E. Menichetti, A. Menshikov, C. Meurer, M. I. Micheletti, W. Miller, L. Miramonti, S. Mollerach, M. Monasor, D. Monnier Ragaigne, F. Montanet, B. Morales, C. Morello, J. C. Moreno, C. Morris, M. Mostafá, C. A. Moura, S. Mueller, M. A. Muller, R. Mussa, G. Navarra, J. L. Navarro, S. Navas, P. Necesal, L. Nellen, C. Newman-Holmes, P. T. Nhung, N. Nierstenhoefer, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, L. Nožka, M. Nyklicek, J. Oehlschläger, A. Olinto, P. Oliva, V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja, M. Ortiz, N. Pacheco, D. Pakk Selmi-Dei, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, N. Palmieri, G. Parente, E. Parizot, S. Parlati, R. D. Parsons, S. Pastor, T. Paul, V. Pavlidou, K. Payet, M. Pech, J. Pȩkala, I. M. Pepe, L. Perrone, R. Pesce, E. Petermann, S. Petrera, P. Petrinca, A. Petrolini, Y. Petrov, J. Petrovic, C. Pfendner, R. Piegaia, T. Pierog, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, V. H. Ponce, M. Pontz, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, E. J. Quel, J. Rautenberg, O. Ravel, D. Ravignani, A. Redondo, B. Revenu, F. A S Rezende, J. Ridky, S. Riggi, M. Risse, C. Rivière, V. Rizi, C. Robledo, G. Rodriguez, J. Rodriguez Martino, J. Rodriguez Rojo, I. Rodriguez-Cabo, M. D. Rodríguez-Frías, G. Ros, J. Rosado, T. Rossler, M. Roth, B. Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, F. Sánchez, M. Santander, C. E. Santo, E. Santos, E. M. Santos, F. Sarazin, S. Sarkar, R. Sato, N. Scharf, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, P. Schiffer, A. Schmidt, F. Schmidt, T. Schmidt, O. Scholten, H. Schoorlemmer, J. Schovancova, P. Schovánek, F. Schroeder, S. Schulte, F. Schüssler, D. Schuster, S. J. Sciutto, M. Scuderi, A. Segreto, D. Semikoz, M. Settimo, R. C. Shellard, I. Sidelnik, B. B. Siffert, G. Sigl, A. Śmiałkowski, R. Šmída, G. R. Snow, P. Sommers, J. Sorokin, H. Spinka, R. Squartini, E. Strazzeri, A. Stutz, F. Suarez, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, M. S. Sutherland, J. Swain, Z. Szadkowski, A. Tamashiro, A. Tamburro, T. Tarutina, O. Taşcǎu, R. Tcaciuc, D. Tcherniakhovski, D. Tegolo, N. T. Thao, D. Thomas, R. Ticona, J. Tiffenberg, C. Timmermans, W. Tkaczyk, C. J. Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, A. Tonachini, I. Torres, P. Travnicek, D. B. Tridapalli, G. Tristram, E. Trovato, M. Tueros, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, A. M. van den Berg, J. R. Vázquez, R. A. Vázquez, D. Veberič, A. Velarde, T. Venters, V. Verzi, M. Videla, L. Villaseñor, S. Vorobiov, L. Voyvodic, H. Wahlberg, P. Wahrlich, O. Wainberg, D. Warner, A. A. Watson, S. Westerhoff, B. J. Whelan, G. Wieczorek, L. Wiencke, B. Wilczyńska, H. Wilczyński, T. Winchen, M. G. Winnick, H. Wu, B. Wundheiler, T. Yamamoto, P. Younk, G. Yuan, A. Yushkov, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, I. Zaw, A. Zepeda, M. Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations

Abstract

The air fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to perform calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers created by cosmic rays of above 1018 eV. To correct these measurements for the effects introduced by atmospheric fluctuations, the Observatory contains a group of monitoring instruments to record atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3000 km2. The atmospheric data are used extensively in the reconstruction of air showers, and are particularly important for the correct determination of shower energies and the depths of shower maxima. This paper contains a summary of the molecular and aerosol conditions measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory since the start of regular operations in 2004, and includes a discussion of the impact of these measurements on air shower reconstructions. Between 1018 and 1020 eV, the systematic uncertainties due to all atmospheric effects increase from 4% to 8% in measurements of shower energy, and 4 g cm- 2 to 8 g cm- 2 in measurements of the shower maximum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-129
Number of pages22
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume33
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT), Brazil; AVCR AV0Z10100502 and AV0Z10100522, GAAV KJB300100801 and KJB100100904, MSMT-CR LA08016, LC527, 1M06002, and MSM0021620859, Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Conseil Régional Ile-de-France, Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS), Département Sciences de l’Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS), France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg, Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF), Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), Netherlands; Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant Nos. 1 P03 D 014 30, N202 090 31/0623, and PAP/218/2006, Poland; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal; Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology, Slovenian Research Agency, Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid, Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Castilla La Mancha, FEDER funds, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council, United Kingdom; Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359, National Science Foundation, Grant No. 0450696, The Grainger Foundation USA; ALFA-EC / HELEN, European Union 6th Framework Program, Grant No. MEIF-CT-2005-025057, European Union 7th Framework Program, Grant No. PIEF-GA-2008-220240, and UNESCO.

Keywords

  • Aerosols
  • Air fluorescence method
  • Atmosphere
  • Bi-static lidar
  • Cosmic rays
  • Extensive air showers
  • Lidar

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A study of the effect of molecular and aerosol conditions in the atmosphere on air fluorescence measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this