Background. A retrospective statewide immunization survey of the 69 115 Minnesota children who entered kindergarten in 1992 was conducted. Methods. Information was collected from school immunization records on date of birth, dates of vaccination for each dose of vaccine, address of residence and race/ethnicity (when available). Immunization rates were assessed retrospectively for each month of a child's life from 2 to 48 months of age. Age-appropriate immunization was defined as receipt of all scheduled vaccines within 30 days of the recommended age. Results. Immunization levels varied by vaccine, age of the child and race/ethnicity. For example at 19 months of age, 73% of students had received measles, mumps, rubella vaccine; however, only 39% had received their fourth dose of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine. White, non-Hispanic students consistently had higher vaccination rates than children of other racial/ethnic groups. For example 45% of white, non-Hispanic students were age-appropriately vaccinated at 16 months of age compared with 25% of Blacks, 30% of American Indians, 30% of white Hispanics and 28% of Asian-Pacific Islanders (Mantel-Haenzel chi square, P < 0.001 for each comparison). Furthermore coverage rates frequently varied significantly by neighborhood, thereby identifying pockets of underimmunization within communities. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that vaccination rates can vary substantially by age, race/ethnicity and neighborhood. Detailed immunization assessment is necessary so that effective targeted interventions can be developed.
- Immunization coverage
- Immunization levels