A scoping review of autoantibodies as biomarkers for canine autoimmune disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Autoantibody biomarkers are valuable tools used to diagnose and manage autoimmune diseases in dogs. However, prior publications have raised concerns over a lack of standardization and sufficient validation for the use of biomarkers in veterinary medicine. Objectives: Systematically compile primary research on autoantibody biomarkers for autoimmune disease in dogs, summarize their methodological features, and evaluate their quality; synthesize data supporting their use into a resource for veterinarians and researchers. Animals: Not used. Methods: Five indices were searched to identify studies for evaluation: PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Agricola, and SCOPUS. Two independent reviewers (AET and ELC) screened titles and abstracts for exclusion criteria followed by full-text review of remaining articles. Relevant studies were classified based on study objectives (biomarker, epitope, technique). Data on study characteristics and outcomes were synthesized in independent data tables for each classification. Results: Ninety-two studies qualified for final analysis (n = 49 biomarker, n = 9 epitope, and n = 34 technique studies). A high degree of heterogeneity in study characteristics and outcomes reporting was observed. Opportunities to strengthen future studies could include: (1) routine use of negative controls, (2) power analyses to inform sample sizes, (3) statistical analyses when appropriate, and (4) multiple detection techniques to confirm results. Conclusions: These findings provide a resource that will allow veterinary clinicians to efficiently evaluate the evidence supporting the use of autoantibody biomarkers, along with the varied methodological approaches used in their development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-378
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


  • autoantibody
  • autoimmunity
  • biomarker
  • dogs
  • immune-mediated diseases
  • Autoantibodies
  • Humans
  • Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis
  • Dog Diseases/diagnosis
  • Veterinarians
  • Animals
  • Dogs
  • Biomarkers

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Review
  • Journal Article


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