Increasing fossil fuel consumption and global warming has been driving the worldwide revolution towards renewable energy. Biomass is abundant and low-cost resource whereas it requires environmentally friendly and cost-effective conversion technique. Pyrolysis of biomass into valuable bio-oil has attracted much attention in the past decades due to its feasibility and huge commercial outlook. However, the complex chemical compositions and high water content in bio-oil greatly hinder the large-scale application and commercialization. Therefore, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for selective production of specific chemicals will stand out as a unique pathway. This review aims to improve the understanding for the process by illustrating the chemistry of non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of biomass at the temperatures ranging from 400 to 650 °C. The focus is to introduce recent progress about producing value-added hydrocarbons, phenols, anhydrosugars, and nitrogen-containing compounds from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over zeolites, metal oxides, etc. via different reaction pathways including cracking, Diels-Alder/aromatization, ketonization/aldol condensation, and ammoniation. The potential challenges and future directions for this technique are discussed in deep.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21766019 , 21878137 ), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province , China ( 20181BAB206030 ), The Centrally Guided Local Science Technology Special Project ( 20202ZDB01012 ), and L. Dai greatly acknowledges China Scholarship Council (CSC), China.
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- Catalytic pyrolysis
- Lignocellulosic biomass