A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

Kaisa S. Poutanen, Pierre Dussort, Alfrun Erkner, Susana Fiszman, Kavita Karnik, Mette Kristensen, Cyril F.M. Marsaux, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Saara P. Pentikäinen, Peter Putz, Joanne L Slavin, Robert E. Steinert, David J. Mela

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)747-754
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume106
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017

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Dietary Fiber
Appetite
Energy Intake
Viscosity
Molecular Weight
Gels
Food and Beverages
Dietary Supplements

Keywords

  • Appetite regulation
  • Dietary fiber properties
  • Fermentability
  • Gelling
  • Molecular weight
  • Viscosity
  • Weight management

Cite this

A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials. / Poutanen, Kaisa S.; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril F.M.; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P.; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E.; Mela, David J.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 3, 01.09.2017, p. 747-754.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Poutanen, KS, Dussort, P, Erkner, A, Fiszman, S, Karnik, K, Kristensen, M, Marsaux, CFM, Miquel-Kergoat, S, Pentikäinen, SP, Putz, P, Slavin, JL, Steinert, RE & Mela, DJ 2017, 'A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 747-754. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.157172
Poutanen, Kaisa S. ; Dussort, Pierre ; Erkner, Alfrun ; Fiszman, Susana ; Karnik, Kavita ; Kristensen, Mette ; Marsaux, Cyril F.M. ; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie ; Pentikäinen, Saara P. ; Putz, Peter ; Slavin, Joanne L ; Steinert, Robert E. ; Mela, David J. / A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 106, No. 3. pp. 747-754.
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abstract = "Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.",
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AU - Dussort, Pierre

AU - Erkner, Alfrun

AU - Fiszman, Susana

AU - Karnik, Kavita

AU - Kristensen, Mette

AU - Marsaux, Cyril F.M.

AU - Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie

AU - Pentikäinen, Saara P.

AU - Putz, Peter

AU - Slavin, Joanne L

AU - Steinert, Robert E.

AU - Mela, David J.

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N2 - Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

AB - Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1) DF name and origin and 2) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetiterelated outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.

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KW - Gelling

KW - Molecular weight

KW - Viscosity

KW - Weight management

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