A review of research on content-based foreign/second language education in US K-12 contexts

Diane J Tedick, Pamela M. Wesely

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


This review of the extant research literature focuses on research about content-based language instruction (CBI) programmes in K-12 foreign/second language education in the USA. The review emphasises studies on one-way language immersion (OWI) and two-way language immersion (TWI) programmes, which are school-based and subject matter-driven. OWI primarily targets majority-language students and TWI a combined student population of minority- and majority-language learners. Reference to the few studies on non-immersion CBI programmes in the USA is also included. This article presents a review of the research in relationship to four broad themes: student outcomes, classroom language use and development, the hidden curriculum, and teacher preparation and practice. The research review is followed by a discussion of the research methodologies and theoretical frameworks used in these studies and concluding sections that set suggestions for paths for future inquiry in four areas: student diversity, the role of English in classrooms, teacher development, and achievement research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-40
Number of pages16
JournalLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Taylor & Francis.


  • content-and-language-integrated learning
  • content-based language instruction
  • language immersion education
  • language teacher education


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