A review of acquired blepharoptosis: prevalence, diagnosis, and current treatment options

Jason Bacharach, Wendy W. Lee, Andrew R. Harrison, Thomas F. Freddo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Blepharoptosis (ptosis) is among the most common disorders of the upper eyelid encountered in both optometric and ophthalmic practice. The unilateral or bilateral drooping of the upper eyelid that characterises ptosis can affect appearance and impair visual function, both of which can negatively impact quality of life. While there are several known forms of congenital ptosis, acquired ptosis (appearing later in life, due to a variety of causes) is the predominant form of the condition. This review summarises the prevalence, causes, identification, differential diagnosis, and treatment of acquired ptosis. Particular attention is paid to the differential diagnosis of acquired ptosis and emerging treatment options, including surgical and pharmacologic approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2468-2481
Number of pages14
JournalEye (Basingstoke)
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements Editorial and administrative support was provided by BioScience Communications (New York, NY, USA) through funding provided by RVL Pharmaceuticals, an affiliate of Osmotica Pharmaceuticals plc (Bridgewater, NJ, USA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


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