Plants, as sessile organisms, have acquired through evolution sophisticated regulatory signal pathways to overcome external variable factors during each stage of the life cycle. Among these regulatory signals, two pathways in particular, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, have become of significant interest in several aspects of plant biology, underpinning these molecules as critical regulators during development, cellular differentiation, and plant-pathogen interaction. Recently, redox posttranslational modifications (PTM), such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues and tyrosine nitration, have shed light on multiple protein targets, as they are associated with signal networks/downstream metabolic pathways, capable of transducing the imbalance of redox hemostasis and consequently redirecting the biochemical status under stress conditions. However, most of the redox PTM have been studied only in the intracellular compartment, providing limited information concerning redox PTM in the extracellular matrix of plant cells. Nevertheless, recent studies have indicated the plausibility of redox PTM in extracellular proteins, including cell wall associated proteins. Accordingly, in this review, we endeavor to examine evidence of redox PTM supported by mass spectrometry data in the intracellular and extracellular space in plant cells. As a further example, we focus the last section of this review on illustrating, using molecular dynamics simulation, the effect of S-nitrosylation on the structural conformation of well-known cell wall-associated proteins including pectin methylesterase and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Our research was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, U0004‐2015‐1_259915 and CB‐2014‐01_242990 to E. R.M. and 257436 to V.M.L.V.).
Our research was funded by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog?a (CONACYT, U0004-2015-1_259915 and CB-2014-01_242990 to E.R.M. and 257436 to V.M.L.V.).
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- cell wall
- molecular dynamics simulation
- post-translational modifications
- reactive nitrogen species
- reactive oxygen species