A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy

John D. Baxter, Douglas L. Mayers, Deborah N. Wentworth, James D. Neaton, Marie L. Hoover, Mark A. Winters, Sharon B. Mannheimer, Melanie A. Thompson, Donald I. Abrams, Barbara J. Brizz, John P.A. Ioannidis, Thomas C. Merigan, C. Pettinelli, K. Canady, L. Johnston-Dow, E. Perille, H. Bohn, A. Martinez, R. Munk, T. DayS. Lukac, K. Weislow, K. George, D. Gallahan, M. Sioud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

489 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the short-term effects of using genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing (GART) with expert advice in the management of patients failing on a protease inhibitor and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Setting: Multicenter community-based clinical trials network. Patients: One-hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected adults with a threefold or greater rise in plasma HIV-1 RNA on at least 16 weeks of combination antiretroviral therapy. Interventions: Randomization was either to a GART group, where genotype interpretation and suggested regimens were provided to clinicians, or to a no-GART group, where treatment choices were made without such input. Main outcomes measures: Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks following randomization. The primary endpoint was change in HIV-1 RNA levels from baseline to the average of the 4 and 8 week levels. Results: The average baseline CD4 cell count was 230 x 106 cells/l and the median HIV-1 RNA was 28,085 copies/ml. At entry, 82 patients were failing on regimens containing indinavir, 51 on nelfinavir, 11 on ritonavir, and nine on saquinavir. HIV-1 RNA, averaged at 4 and 8 weeks, decreased by 1.19 log10 for the 78 GART patients and -0.61 log10 for the 75 no-GART patients (treatment difference: -0.53 log, 95% confidence interval, -0.77 to -0.29; P = 0.00001). Overall, the best virologic responses occurred in patients who received three or more drugs to which their HIV-1 appeared to be susceptible. Conclusion: In patients failing triple drug therapy, GART with expert advice was superior to no-GART as measured by short-term viral load responses. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)F83-F93
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2000


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • HIV drug resistance/resistance mutations
  • Viral load


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