A Randomized Phase IIb Study of Low-dose Tamoxifen in Chest-irradiated Cancer Survivors at Risk for Breast Cancer

Smita Bhatia, Melanie R Palomares, Lindsey Hageman, Yanjun Chen, Wendy Landier, Kandice Smith, Heidi Umphrey, Caroline A Reich, Kathryn W Zamora, Saro H Armenian, Therese B Bevers, Anne Blaes, Tara Henderson, David Hodgson, Melissa M Hudson, Larissa A Korde, Susan A Melin, Sofia D Merajver, Linda Overholser, Sandhya PruthiF Lennie Wong, Judy E Garber

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE: Low-dose tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk, but remains untested in chest-irradiated cancer survivors-a population with breast cancer risk comparable with BRCA mutation carriers. We hypothesized that low-dose tamoxifen would be safe and efficacious in reducing radiation-related breast cancer risk.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, phase IIb, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (FDA IND107367) between 2010 and 2016 at 15 U.S. sites. Eligibility included ≥12 Gy of chest radiation by age 40 years and age at enrollment ≥25 years. Patients were randomized 1:1 to low-dose tamoxifen (5 mg/day) or identical placebo tablets for 2 years. The primary endpoint was mammographic dense area at baseline, 1 and 2 years. IGF-1 plays a role in breast carcinogenesis; circulating IGF-1 and IGF-BP3 levels at baseline, 1 and 2 years served as secondary endpoints.

RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (low-dose tamoxifen: n = 34, placebo: n = 38) enrolled at a median age of 43.8 years (35-49) were evaluable. They had received chest radiation at a median dose of 30.3 Gy. Compared with the placebo arm, the low-dose tamoxifen arm participants had significantly lower mammographic dense area (P = 0.02) and IGF1 levels (P < 0.0001), and higher IGFBP-3 levels (P = 0.02). There was no difference in toxicity biomarkers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, lipids, and antithrombin III; urine N-telopeptide cross-links) between the treatment arms. We did not identify any grade 3-4 adverse events related to low-dose tamoxifen.

CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial in chest-irradiated cancer survivors, we find that low-dose tamoxifen is effective in reducing established biomarkers of breast cancer risk and could serve as a risk-reduction strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)967-974
Number of pages8
JournalClinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2021

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