A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled evaluation of calcium chloride and epinephrine for inotropic support after emergence from cardiopulmonary bypass

R. L. Royster, J. F. Butterworth IV, R. C. Prielipp, P. G. Robertie, N. D. Kon, W. Y. Tucker, L. M. Dudas, G. P. Zaloga

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51 Scopus citations

Abstract

Forty hemodynamically stable patients were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either calcium chloride (5 mg/kg) (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) (phase I). Six minutes later, they received either an epinephrine (30 ng·kg-1·min-1) (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) infusion (phase II). Hemodynamic and ionized calcium measurements were obtained in phase I at baseline and at 3 and 6 min after the bolus, and in phase II, at 3 and 6 min (study times 9 and 12 min) after initiation of the infusion. Compared with placebo, calcium did not significantly increase cardiac index but significantly increased mean arterial pressure. Calcium improved cardiac index from 2.46 ± 0.12 (mean ± SEM) to 2.74 ± 0.12 L·min-1·m-2; likewise, placebo improved cardiac index from 2.51 ± 0.15 to 2.74 ± 0.15 L·min-1·m-2. Mean arterial blood pressure increased with calcium from 74 ± 2 to 82 ± 3 mm Hg compared with a placebo change of 74 ± 2 to 76 ± 2 mm Hg. Patients who received the epinephrine infusion (n = 20) demonstrated a significant increase in cardiac index at time 12 min compared with patients receiving only placebo (n = 20). Cardiac index of the epinephrine group increased from 2.56 ± 0.15 to 2.92 ± 0.22 L·min-1·m-2, whereas in the placebo group it decreased from 2.86 ± 0.13 to 2.78 ± 0.12 L·min-1·m-2. Prior administration of calcium did not alter the subsequent response to epinephrine (n = 10) compared with patients receiving epinephrine alone (n = 10). We conclude that cardiac index improves with time without drug therapy after bypass. Calcium chloride increases mean arterial blood pressure but not cardiac index immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas low-dose epinephrine significantly increases both cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure without causing tachycardia in these patients. Calcium chloride (5 mg/kg) did not augment or inhibit the hemodynamic response to an epinephrine infusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-13
Number of pages11
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Volume74
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

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